O. O. Protasov1, О. A. Nemtsov2, O. M. Masko3
1Institute of Hydrobiology of NAS of Ukraine,
12, Heroiv Stalinhradu av., Kyiv, 04210, Ukraine
2SE “National Nuclear Power Generation Company ‘Energoatom’”,
3, Nazarivska st., Kyiv, 01032, Ukraine
3SE “State Scientific Engineering Center of Control System and Emergency Response”, 64/56, Heroiv Stalinhradu av., Kyiv, 04213, Ukraine
The article deals with the implementation of the principles and guidelines of the EU in the field of water management, protection and assessment of the aquatic environment quality in aspect of applying the EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60, and for organization of hydrobiological monitoring of cooling systems and technical water supply of Ukrainian nucler power plants (NPPs).
Currently, Ukraine has adopted new state documents that regulate the procedure for conducting the state water monitoring. However, as in the Water Framework Directive, the documents focus on the monitoring of natural water bodies (rivers and lakes).
The cooling ponds of Ukrainian NPPs are artificial water bodies, and have each unique operating mode and design features. They are located in different climatic zones. Therefore, environmental and hydrobiological monitoring should be carried out taking into account these features. The existing principles of surface water monitoring do not take into account the need to control
both the influence of anthropogenic factors on the environment, and also the reverse influence of biotic factors on the reliability of operation of NPP technical systems.
The Water Framework Directive suggests for assessments to use a comparative analysis of ecosystems of artificial water bodies with “similar” or close to them in nature. However, for cooling ponds there are no analogues in nature, therefore, it is necessary to search the adequate approaches to assess the ecological state (ecological potential) of these water bodies. And in a broader aspect, an assessment of the whole water techno-ecosystem is necessary.
The article outlines the basic principles and provisions of the new standard of SE “NNEGC ‘Energoatom’” in the field of environmental protection SOU NAEK 178:2019 “Procedure of hydrobiological monitoring developing for a cooling ponds, cooling systems and water supply system of NPPs with VVER-type reactors”. When creating the Standard, the developers took into account the necessity of using hydrobiological indicators in monitoring and assessment, as required by the Water Framework Directive. On the other hand, this document takes into account the peculiarities of nuclear techno-ecosystems of NPPs. Hydrobiological monitoring of NPP techno-ecosystems is aimed two main tasks: to identify probable and real causes of biological disturbances in the operation of NPP water supply systems and as well as to identify the factors which lead to negative impact of technical ecosustems on the surrounding hydro ecosystems due to non-radiation exposure.
Keywords: nuclear power plant, cooling pond, hydrobiological monitoring, рrocedure, standard of enterprise, techno-ecosystem.
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