I. G. Sharaevsky, N. M. Fialko, L. B Zimin, A. V. Nosovskyi, T. S. Vlasenko,
G. I. Sharaevsky
Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, NAS of Ukraine, 12, Lysogirska st., Kyiv, 03028, Ukraine
The article is devoted to critical review of the state of theoretical and experimental scientific researches, creation of calculation methods and concepts, as well as development of conceptual pilot projects of channel and tank water cooled reactors with supercritical pressure of coolant (SCWR) in the USA, Canada, Japan, Germany, and more. Russian projects for such reactors are to be considered individually in the future. The main technical and economic characteristics of these projects are presented and compared in a generalized way. Advantages and disadvantages of the transition to the single-circuit scheme of circulating coolant with nuclear overheating of steam in realization of different variants of working fluid movement organization are estimated in these projects. Known forecasts for the reduction of capital and operating costs for the construction and operation of power units up to 1,200 MW (el) are analyzed for the concepts of fast, thermal and mixed neutron spectrums in the core. Insufficient validity issues of heat exchange processes safety on the surface of fuel elements in the core is revealed, in particular, taking into account the possibility of a potentially dangerous phenomenon of its fluid pseudo-boiling in the conditions of supercritical parameters of the coolant. The necessity to carry out an additional set of appropriate bench of experimental studies was emphasized in order to increase the reliability of the expected technical and environmental safety indicators.
Keywords: water-cooled energy reactor, circuit of coolant circulation, supercritical parameters.
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