І. G. Sharaevsky, Т. S. Vlasenko, L. B. Zimin,
А. V. Nоsоvskyi, N. М. Fіаlkо, G. І. Sharaevsky
Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants,
NAS of Ukraine, 12, Lysogirska st., Kyiv, 03028, Ukraine
On the basis of generalization tendencies of safety problems development concerning the basic types of water-cooled power nuclear reactors, the analysis of a condition of the corresponding researches and own scientific experience the most important scientific and practical directions are formulated and the complex of the priority scientific and technical problems connected with maintenance of reliability and prolongation existing and promising nuclear power plants. The main shortcomings of the existing systems of control and diagnostics of complex multifactor neutron-physical, thermohydraulic and vibration processes, which accompany the operation of these reactors, including their most important main equipment — core zones, are identified and the fundamental imperfection of these systems. The stochastic nature of controlled physical processes and the need to introduce real-time methods of spectral analysis and artificial intelligence to take into account the fluctuation components of the sensors of the main technological parameters. To this end, the need to radically change the determined principles of building control and diagnostic systems by creating the latest software and hardware for automatic diagnostics, capable of detecting the initial phases of potentially dangerous operational anomalies, which should alleviate information-intensive working conditions of operational personnel, increase efficiency. and the cost-effectiveness of management decisions made by them, and to optimize the repair policy with a significant extension of the life of the main equipment. The basic requirements to the created intelligent diagnostic functionality of water-cooled power nuclear reactors are formulated, the directions of construction of mathematical models, algorithmic and software of future computer complexes of automatic control and diagnostics are defined.
Keywords: water-cooled nuclear power reactors, operational safety, automatic diagnostics, artificial intelligence methods.
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